Descended from a first species, Oryza Sativa research has found that this plants was found in the valley’s of the Himalayas over 12,000 years ago. From that first Asian rice many varieties' that today we grow are descended: the japonica rice, suitable for temperate zones like ours and characterized by a grain crust, and the indica rice, characterized by a thin crystal grain widespread in Southeast Asia . It is produced in 113 countries and more than half the world's population is the basis of the daily diet.
Is, therefore, important to pay attention to the special nutritional composition of rice, emphasizing the qualities that this food diet has been shown to possess. Among the positive characteristics that the rice has, first of all its high digestibility, higher than any other starchy food, including pasta: the carbohydrate fraction consists of rice starch occurs, in fact, in the form of granules with very small dimensions (2- 10 microns), and also the relationship between the two components of starch (the linear - amylose - and branched - amylopectin -, that affect the digestibility and absorption), is in favor of amylopectin , which appears to be more easily attacked by amylolytic enzymes and, therefore, more easily digestible, rice is then assimilated into 60 \ 100 minutes.
In this digest, you associate the high absorption in the intestine nutrient content in rice; in fact, the salivary enzymes are able to break down starch into its components (amylose and amylo-pe and, respectively, maltose and alpha-dextrin), totally absorbable nutrients in the small intestine.
The carbohydrate component of rice, also has a regulatory effect on the intestinal flora, as a diet mainly based on rice select fermentative bacteria, which confer a resistance to intestinal colonization by pathogens; This particular feature has led doctors, of the century, to give the rice a characteristic diet therapy, important for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, and even today many remember the "white rice" as prescribed by your doctor in case of therapy pathologies of the gastrointestinal system.
With regard to the protein contained in the rice, it is important to emphasize how the rice proteins possess a better amino acid composition compared to other cereals, thanks to the presence of the amino acid lysine, defined essential as the human body is unable to synthesize independently, which must be introduced through the power, and this gives the rice protein biological value highest among the various cereals; Furthermore, another aspect to remember is that the proteins of the rice does not contain those gliadiniche and glutenin composites, typical of hard and soft wheats, which allows the formation of gluten, but that in many cases cause severe food allergies (eg. Alzheimer celiac).
Brown rice and polished rice have nutritional differences: in the integral there is a significant presence of vitamins, fiber, minerals, essential fatty acids (found mainly in the germ), and enzymes; while in the case of polished rice (worked) these elements are not significant because eliminated during the refining process.
Black rice (or Venus) is a variety of rice due to natural pigments contained in the pericarp, and possesses antioxidant properties. While the red rice is obtained by the fermentation of the yeast Monascus purpureus, and thanks to the action of monacolins, produced by the fermentation, is able to inhibit the production of cholesterol. The glycemic index of rice depends on its amylose content that changes depending on the variety of rice, the temperature of gelatinization and the cooking time. .
The rice with a high amylose content have a percentage of slow digestion and absorption, and thus a lower glycemic response and insulin. Another characteristic that distinguishes the rice from other foods is the fact that the transition from field to table is linear and fast: in fact, the technological process that precedes the consumption is extremely simple: after husking and refining, is usually served as such after boiling, and then only the simple production chain that carries the rice on our plates does not allow adulteration of the food can take place.
The fact that the rice for human consumption should be consumed exclusively cooked makes a food hygienically safe.

Dott.ssa Roberta Martin